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Glossary of Terms

  • Actionable genes:
    Specific genes or genetic mutations associated with a particular disease or medical condition, which can be a target for interventions.
  • Body Mass Index (BMI):
    A numerical value calculated based on an individual's weight and height. It is used to evaluate whether their weight is healthy in relation to their height.
  • Biomarkers :
    Measurable indicators or substances found in biological samples such as blood and urine. They provide information about a biological process, condition, or disease.
  • Epidemiology :
    The study of how diseases and health conditions spread among populations and the factors that affect their distribution. This field is essential in public health as it helps us comprehend and regulate the spread of diseases and health conditions, identify risk factors, and develop health policies and interventions.
  • ELSI :
    Ethical, Legal and Social Implications. They are integrated into research to ensure responsible progress and consider the wider implications for individuals and society.
  • Genetic aetiologies:
    Genetic causes or factors contributing to developing a disease or medical condition.
  • Genetic predisposition:
    The genetic makeup of an individual which influences their risk of developing a particular disease or medical condition.
  • Growth trajectories:
    To track an individual's body measurements like height, weight, and BMI over time to monitor growth and development patterns.
  • Monogenic obesity:
    A rare, early-onset, and severe form of obesity caused by mutations in a single gene.
  • Multi-omics :
    Research involving the analysis of ‘omics’ data including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and epigenomics. This holistic approach enables researchers to discover complex relationships and mechanisms within biological systems.
  • Obesogenic environment:
    A set of circumstances that increases the likelihood of an individual developing overweight or obesity.
  • Pathogenic pathways:
    A sequence of biological events and interactions that lead to the development and progression of disease.
  • Precision medicine:
    An approach to healthcare based on tailoring treatments to the specific characteristics of an individual including their genetic makeup, lifestyle, and environmental factors.
  • Primary prevention:
    A strategy aimed at preventing a disease or medical condition in healthy individuals.
  • Polygenic :
    A trait or characteristic influenced by multiple genes.
  • Secondary prevention:
    A strategy to detect and intervene in individuals at risk of, or have, the early stages of a disease or medical condition. The aim is to manage the condition before it becomes more severe.
  • Transomic Analyses :
    A complex technique used to understand more about how specific genes are turned on or off in response to biological, environmental and disease-related factors.
  • Whole exome sequencing:
    A powerful and widely used genetic sequencing technique in genomics research and clinical genetics. It enables researchers to identify disease-causing mutations and understand more about the genetic basis of disease.